GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING WATER USING WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI): A CASE STUDY OF NGURU, YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

M. Suleiman, D.S. Sani, H. Audu

Abstract



Despite the importance of groundwater, its quality assessment has received little attention and effort to use hydrochemistry data to solve a particular problem is either little or non-existent. This study, therefore, assesses the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking in Nguru town, Nguru LGA, Yobe State using WQI. The study was carried out using laboratory techniques to determine the level of concentration of parameters such as pH, colour, total hardness, conductivity, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, sulphate, sodium, turbidity, copper, manganese, zinc, lead and iron in boreholes across the Nguru metropolis, which consists of four wards namely; Hausari, Bulabulin, Sabon Gari and Nglewa-Tsoho Nguru Wards. Water samples were collected from eight sampling points across the four urban wards. The collected samples were analysed using the standard method in Yobe State University, Damaturu. The student's t-test was used to compare the level of concentration of physicochemical parameters with the WHO and NSDWQ standards for drinking water. The result shows the level of concentration of parameters among the four Wards are within the acceptable drinking water standard using WHO 2010 standards and Nigeria standards for drinking water respectively except for Bulabulin ward and Nglewa-Tsoho Nguru Ward whereby lead and iron are higher than the permissible limit for both the WHO and NSDWQ. Consequently, the water quality index(WQI) analysis reveals that water samples analyzed from borehole among the four sampled wards are unsuitable for human consumption because it exceeds 100 with exception of the Sabon Gari ward which falls within excellent water quality (2.21). Thus, only water sampled in Sabon Gari is fit for human consumption without treatment. As such, the study suggests periodical testing and treatment of water.

Keywords


Groundwater, Physicochemical, Turbidity, Total hardness, Drinking, WQI

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