Urinary Assessment among Nigerians in Health and with Frequent Use of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Uduagbamen PK, Hamzat MA, Ehioghae O


Background: Proteinuria is a risk factor for the occurrence and progression of chronic kidney disease hence its use in screening, diagnosis and monitoring purposes. The use of untimed sample has become more common due to shortcomings associated with 24 hour urine collection.

Aim: To use urinary measures in comparing the kidney function of a healthy population with an apparently healthy population with frequent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Methods: Two hundred participants submitted paired urine samples. Blood was collected for estimation of creatinine based glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Student t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare means and proportions respectively.

Result: The prevalence of kidney dysfunction among NSAIDs users using eGFR, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), protein creatinine ratio (PCR) and 24 hour urine protein (24HUP) were 22%, 18%, 16% and 11% while in the controls were 6%, 6%, 5% and 0% respectively. The albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) was most strongly correlated with GFR in NSAIDs users.

Conclusion: The prevalence of kidney dysfunction using eGFR, ACR, PCR and 24HUP in NSAIDs users were all higher than in the healthy controls. The correlation between GFR and ACR was strongest of all urinary measures hence the ACR was a more reliable measure of kidney function assessment in health and in frequent NSAIDs use.


non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, albumin creatinine ratio, protein creatinine ratio, 24-hour urine protein, glomerular filtration rate

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